A Biomimetic DNA‐Based Membrane Gate for Protein‐Controlled Transport of Cytotoxic Drugs

Lanphere, C. , P. Arnott, S. Fôn Jones, K. Korlova S. Howorka

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 59: 2-8, (2020)

Reading amino acids in a nanopore

Howorka, S. and Z. S. Siwy

Nat Biotechnol, (2020)


Synthetic protein-conductive membrane nanopores built with DNA

Diederichs, T.G. Pugh, A. DoreyY. Xing, J.R. Burns, Q.H. Nguyen, M. Tornow, R. Tampé, S. Howorka

Nat Commun, 10: 5018 (2019)

Exploring the Relationship between BODIPY Structure and Spectroscopic Properties to Design Fluorophores for Bioimaging

Donnelly, J. L. , D. Offenbartl‐Stiegert, J. M. Marín‐Beloqui, L. Rizzello, G. Battaglia, T. M. Clarke, S. Howorka and J. D. Wilden

Chem. – A Eur. J., 25, (2019)

Solvent-dependent Photophysics of a Red-shifted, Biocompatible Coumarin Photocage

Offenbartl-Stiegert, D., T. M. Clarke, H. Bronstein, H. P. Nguyen and S. Howorka

Org. Biomol. Chem., 17: 6178-6183 (2019)

Structural and Functional Stability of DNA Nanopores in Biological Media

Burns, J. R., S. Howorka

Nanomaterials, 9(4): 490 (2019)

Cholesterol Anchors Enable Efficient Binding and Intracellular Uptake of DNA Nanostructures

Whitehouse, W. L. , J. E. Noble, M. G. Ryadnov, S. Howorka

Bioconjugate Chem., 30(7): 1836-1844 (2019)

Opto‐epigenetic modulation of DNA methylation with a photo‐responsive small‐molecule approach

Nguyen, H.P., S. Stewart, M. N. Kukwikila, S. Fôn Jones, D. Offenbartl-Stiegert, S. Mao, S. Balasubramanian, S. Beck, S. Howorka

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 58(20): 6620-6624 (2019)

Spatial presentation of cholesterol units on a DNA cube as a determinant of membrane protein-mimicking functions

Chidchob, P.,  D. Offenbartl-Stiegert, D. McCarthy, X. Luo, J. Li, S. Howorka, H.F. Sleiman

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 141(2): 1100-1108 (2019)


Dynamic interactions between lipid-tethered DNA and phospholipid membranes

Arnott, P. M. , J. Himanshu, A. Aksimentiev, S. Howorka 

Langmuir, 34(49): 15084-15092, Cover (2018)

Defined Bilayer Interactions of DNA Nanopores Revealed with a Nuclease-Based Nanoprobe Strategy

Burns, J. R., S. Howorka

ACS Nano, 12(4): 3263–3271 (2018)


Building membrane nanopores

S. Howorka

Nat Nanotechnol, 12: 619-630 (2017)

DNA nanotechnology: Bringing lipid bilayers into shape

S. Howorka

Nat Chem, 9: 611-613 (2017)

Stability and Dynamics of Membrane-Spanning DNA Nanopores

Maingi, V., J. R. Burns, J. J. Uusitalo, S. Howorka, S. J. Marrink, M. S. P. Sansom

Nat Commun, 8: 14784 (2017)

Arrays of Individual DNA Molecules on Nanopatterned Substrates

Roland, H., A. Halilovic, J. R. Burns, F. Schäffler, S. Howorka

Sci Rep, 7: 42075 (2017)


Nanopores and Nanochannels: From Gene Sequencing to Genome Mapping

S. Howorka, Z. Siwy

ACS Nano, 10(11): 9768–9771 (2016)

Biomimetic Hybrid Nanocontainers with Selective Permeability

Messager, L., J. R. Burns, D. Cecchin, J. Hindley, A. L. B. Pyne, J. Gaitzsch, G. Battaglia, S. Howorka

Angew Chem Int Ed, 55(37): 11106–11109 (2016)

Changing of the Guard: DNA Nanostructures Mimic Membrane Proteins

S. Howorka 

Science, 352(6288): 890-891 (2016)

Co-Immobilization of Proteins and DNA Origami Nanoplates to Produce High-Contrast Biomolecular Nanoarrays

Hager, R., J. R. Burns, M. J. Grydlik, A. Halilovic, T. Haselgrübler, F. Schäffler, S. Howorka

Small, 12(21): 2877–2884 (2016)


Gating-like Motions and Wall Porosity in a DNA Nanopore Scaffold Revealed by Molecular Simulations

Maingi, V., M. Lelimousin, S. Howorka, M. Sansom

ACS Nano, 9(11): 11209–11217 (2015)

Dendrimers in Nanoscale Confinement: The Interplay between Conformational Change and Nanopore Entrance

Ficici, E., I. Andricioaei, S. Howorka

Nano Lett, 5(7): 4822-4828 (2015)

Nanopore-Based Electrical and Label-Free Sensing of  Enzyme Activity in Blood Serum

Kukwikila, M., S. Howorka

Anal Chem, 87(18): 9149–9154 (2015)

Bilayer-Spanning DNA Nanopores with Voltage-Switching between Open and Closed State

Seifert, A., K. Göpfrich, J. R. Burns, N.Fertig, U.F. Keyser, S. Howorka

ACS Nano, 9(2): 1117-1126, Cover (2015)


S-layer Structure in Bacteria and Archaea

C. Madhurantakam, S. Howorka, H. Remaut 

In: Nanomicrobiology L. L. Barton et al. (eds.), Springer Science+ Business Media New York, 11-37 (2014)

Membrane-Spanning DNA Nanopores with Cytotoxic Effect 

Burns, J. R., N. Al-Juffali, S. M. Janes, S. Howorka

Angew Chem Int Ed 53(46): 12466-12470 (2014)

Hot Paper, Back Cover, Highlighted in Nat Chem. (2015) 7(1): 17-18, Nanotechnology: deadly DNA. S. Krishnan S, F. C. Simmel.

DNA-Modified Polymer Pores Allow pH and Voltage-Gated Control of Channel Flux

S. Buchsbaum, G. Nguyen, S. Howorka, Z. Siwy

J Am Chem Soc, 136(28): 9902-9905 (2014)

Involvement of SbsB in Ca2+ Triggered S-Layer Assembly

C. Madhurantakam, S. Howorka, H. Remaut (2014) 

In: Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 2-8.

Structure and Mechanism of the Bacterial Protein Secretion Channel CsgG

Goyal, P., P. V. Krasteva, N. Van Gerven, F. Gubellini, I. Van den Broeck, A. Troupiotis-Tsaïlaki, W. Jonckheere, G. Péhau-Arnaudet, J. S. Pinkner, M. R. Chapman, S. J. Hultgren, S. Howorka, R. Fronzes, H. Remaut 

Nature, 516(7530): 250-253 (2014)

Microarrays and Single Molecules: An Exciting Combination

S. Howorka, J. Hesse

Soft Matter, 10(7): 931–941 (2014)

Highlighted on the Soft Matter blog, Hot Paper.


Lipid Bilayer-Spanning DNA Nanopores with a Bifunctional Porphyrin Anchor

Burns, J. R., K. Göpfrich, J. W. Wood, V. V. Thacker, E. Stulz, U. F. Keyser, S. Howorka

Angew Chem Int Ed, 52(46): 12069–12072 (2013)

Hot Paper, Front cover.

Disentangling Steric and Electrostatic Factors in Nanoscale Transport Through Confined Space

Buchsbaum, S., N. Mitchell, M. Hugh, M. Wiggin, A. Marziali, P. V. Coveney, S. Ziwy, S. Howorka

Nano Lett, 13(8): 3890–3896 (2013)

Self-Assembled DNA Nanopores that Span Lipid Bilayers

Burns, J., Stulz, E., S. Howorka

Nano Lett, 13(6): 2351-2356 (2013)

DNA Nanoarchitectonics: Assembled DNA at Interfaces

S. Howorka  

Langmuir, invited review, 29(24):7344-7353. Cover. (2013)


Nanopores as Protein Sensors

S. Howorka, Z. Siwy

Nat Biotechnol, 30(6), 507-508 (2012)

SbsB Structure and Lattice Reconstruction Unveil Ca2+ Triggered S-layer Assembly

Baranova, E., Fronzes, R., Garcia-Pino, A., Papapostolou, D., Péhau-Arnaudet, G., Pardon, E., Steyaert, S., Howorka, S., Remaut, H.

Nature, 487(405): 119-122 (2012)

Painting with Biomolecules at the Nanoscale: Biofunctionalization with Tunable Surface Densities

Schlapak, R., Danzberger, J., Haselgruebler, T., Hinterdorfer, P., Schäffler, F., Howorka, S.

Nano Lett, 12(4), 1983–1989 (2012)

Nanoscale DNA Tetrahedra Improve Biomolecular Recognition on Patterned Surfaces

Schlapak, R., J. Danzberger, D. Armitage, D. Morgan, P. D. Pollheimer, H. J. Gruber, F. Schäffler, S. Howorka

Small, 8(1): 89-97 (2012)


Single-Molecule AFM Characterization of Individual Chemically Tagged DNA Tetrahedra

Leitner, M., N. Mitchell, M. Kastner, R. Schlapak, H. J. Gruber, P. Hinterdorfer, S. Howorka, A. Ebner

ACS Nano, 5(9): 7048-7054 (2011)

The structure of Bacterial S-layer Proteins

Pavkov-Keller, T., S. Howorka, W. Keller

In: Molecular Assembly in Natural and Engineered Systems, Series title: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, Academic Press, Editor: S. Howorka: 73-130 (2011)

Molecular Assembly in Natural and Engineered Systems

Series title: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, Academic Press, Editor: S. Howorka (2011).

Rationally Engineering Natural Protein Assemblies in Nanobiotechnology 

S. Howorka

Curr Opin Biotechnol, 22: 485-491 (2011)

Nanoimaging, Molecular Interaction, and Nanotemplating of Human Rhinovirus Nanopores

Kastner, M., C. Rankl, A. Ebner, P. D. Pollheimer, S. Howorka, H. J. Gruber, D. Blaas, P. Hinterdorfer

In: Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol.2., Editor, B. Bhushan, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (2011)

DNA Strands Attached Inside Single Conical Nanopores: Ionic Pore Characteristics and Insight into DNA Biophysics

Nguyen, G., S. Howorka, Z. S. Siwy

J Membr Biol, 239(1-2): 105-13 (2011)


Improved Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for Imaging Individual DNA Molecules on Insulating Surfaces

Carl Leung, Dario Maradan, Armin Kramer, Stefan Howorka, Patrick Mesquida and Bart W Hoogenboom

Appl Phys Lett, 97, 203703 (2010)

Biosensors and Biofuel Cells with Engineered Proteins

Caruana, D. J., S. Howorka

Mol Biosyst, 6(8): 1548 - 1556 (2010)

Nanomechanical Recognition Measurements of Individual DNA Molecules Reveals Epigenetic Methylation Patterns

Zhu, R., S. Howorka, J. Pröll, F. Kienberger, J. Preiner, J. Hesse, A. Ebner, V. P. Pastushenko, H. J. Gruber, P. Hinterdorfer

Nature Nanotechnol, 5(11): 788-791 (2010)

Interfacial Dipole Dynamics of Light-Emitting Diodes Incorporating a Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer Monolayer

Winroth, G., O. Fenwick, M. A. Scott, D. Yip, S. Howorka, F. Cacialli

Appl Phys Lett, 97(4): 043304 (2010)  

Selected for the August, 2010 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology

Electrically Sensing Protease Activity with Nanopores

Kukwikila, M., S. Howorka

J Physics, 22(45): 454103 (2010)

Chemical Tags Mediate the Self-Assembly of DNA Strands into Supramolecular Structures

Mitchell, N., A. Ebner, P. Hinterdorfer, R. Tampe, S. Howorka

Small, 6(16): 1732–1735 (2010)

Identifying Assembly-Inhibiting and Assembly-Tolerant Sites in the SbsB S-Layer Protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Kinns, H., H. Badelt-Lichtblau, E.M. Egelseer, U.B. Sleytr, S. Howorka

J Mol Biol, 395(4): 742-753 (2010)

Engineered Voltage-Responsive Nanopores

Siwy, Z., S. Howorka

Chem Soc Rev, 39(3): 1115-1132 (2010).


Semipermeable Poly(ethylene glycol) Films: The Relationship between Permeability and Molecular Structure of Polymer Chains

Schlapak, R., D. Caruana, D. Armitage, S. Howorka

Soft Matter, 5(21): 4104-4112 (2009)

Synthesis and Enzymatic Incorporation of Modified Deoxyuridine Triphosphates

Borsenberger, V., M. Kukwikila, S. Howorka

Org Biomol Chem, 7(18): 3826-3835 (2009)

Topography and Recognition Imaging of Protein Patterned Surfaces Generated by AFM Nanolithography

Zhu, R. A. Ebner, M. Kastner, J. Preiner, S. Howorka, P. Hinterdorfer

ChemPhysChem, 10(9-10):1478-81 (2009)

Imaging Surface Charges of Individual Biomolecules 

Leug, C., H. Kinns, B. Hoogenboom , S. Howorka , P. Mesquida

Nano Lett, 9(7): 2769-2773 (2009)

Chemically Labeled Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides Encode DNA for Sensing with Nanopores

Borsenberger, V., N. Mitchell, Howorka, S.

J Am Chem Soc, 131(22): 7530-7531 (2009)

Nanopore Analytics: Sensing of Single Molecules

Howorka, S., Z. Siwy

Chem Soc Rev, 38(8): 2360-2384 (2009)

Engineering and Exploiting Protein Assemblies in Synthetic Biology

Papapostolou, D., S. Howorka

Mol Biosyst, 5(7): 723-732 (2009)

Receptor Arrays for the Selective and Efficient Capturing of Viral Particles

Pollheimer, P. D., M. Kastner, A. Ebner, D. Blaas, P. Hinterdorfer, H. J. Gruber, S. Howorka 

Bioconjug Chem, 20(3): 466–475 (2009)

Diene-Modified Nucleotides for the Diels-Alder-Mediated Functional Tagging of DNA 

Borsenberger, V., S. Howorka 

Nucleic Acids Res, 37(5): 1477-1485 (2009)

Selective Protein and DNA Adsorption on PLL-PEG Films Modulated by Ionic Strength

Schlapak, R., D. Armitage, N. Saucedo-Zeni, W. Chrzanowski, M. Hohage, D. Caruana, S. Howorka

Soft Matter, 5(3): 613-621. Cover. (2009)

A DNA Nanostructure for the Functional Assembly of Chemical Groups at Tunable Stoichiometry and Defined Nanoscale Geometry

Mitchell, N., R. Schlapak, M. Kastner, D. Armitage, W. Chrzanowski, J. Riener, P. Hinterdorfer, A. Ebner, S. Howorka

Angew Chem Int Ed, 48(3): 525-7 (2009)


Nanopores: Generation, Engineering and Single-Molecule Applications

Howorka, S., Z. Siwy

In: Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics, Springer (2008)  

Chemical Tags Facilitate the Detection of Individual DNA Strands with Nanopores

Mitchell, N., S. Howorka

Angew Chem Int Ed, 47(30): 5565-5568. Cover. (2008)

Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Nano-Chip for the Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses

Artelsmair, H., F. Kienberger, A. Tinazli, R. Schlapak, J. Preiner, J. Wruss, M. Kastner, N. Saucedo-Zeni, M. Hoelzl, C. Rankl, W. Baumgartner, S. Howorka, D. Blaas, H. J. Gruber, R. Tampé, P. Hinterdorfer

Small, 4(6): 847-54 (2008)

The Surface Location of Individual Residues in a Bacterial S-Layer Protein

Kinns, H., S. Howorka

J Mol Biol, 377(2): 589-604 (2008)

Self-Assembled Monolayers of Protonated Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers on Indium-Tin-IOxide Electrodes

Latini, G., M. Wykes, R. Schlapak, S. Howorka,  F. Cacialli

Appl Phys Lett, 92(1): 013511 (2008)


Stochastic Detection of Motor Protein-RNA Complexes by Single-Channel Current Recording 

Astier, Y., D. E. Kainov, H. Bayley, R. Tuma and S. Howorka

ChemPhysChem 8(15): 2189-2194 (2007)

Creating Regular Arrays of Nanoparticles with Self-Assembling Protein Building Blocks 

Howorka, S.

J Mater Chem 17(20): 2049-2053. Cover. (2007)

Nanoscale Protein Pores Modified with PAMAM Dendrimers

Martin, H., H. Kinns, N. Mitchell, R. Madathil and S. Howorka

J Am Chem Soc, 129(31): 9640-9649 (2007)

Dense Passivating Poly(ethylene glycol) Films on Indium Tin Oxide Substrates 

Schlapak, R., D. Armitage, N. Saucedo-Zeni, M. Hohage, S. Howorka

Langmuir,  23(20): 10244-10253 (2007)

Preparation and Characterization of Dense Films of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers on Indium Tin Oxide

Schlapak, R., D. Armitage, N. Saucedo-Zeni, G. Latini, H. J. Gruber, Y. Samotskaya, P. Mesquida, F. Cacialli, M. Hohage and S. Howorka

Langmuir, 23(17): 8916-8924 (2007)

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Heterogeneous Dynamics of Lipid Raft Components upon TCR Engagement 

Drbal, K., M. Moertelmaier, C. Holzhauser, A. Muhammad, E. Fuertbauer, S. Howorka, M. Hinterberger, H. Stockinger and G. J. Schutz

Int Immunology, 19(5): 675-684 (2007)

Sizing Trinucleotide Repeat Sequences by Single-molecule Analysis of Fluorescence Brightness

Schlapak, R., H. Kinns, C. Wechselberger, J. Hesse and S. Howorka

ChemPhysChem, 8(11): 1618-1621 (2007)


Glass Surfaces Grafted with High-density Poly(ethylene glycol) as Substrates for DNA Oligonucleotide Microarrays

Schlapak, R., P. Pammer, D. Armitage, R. Zhu, P. Hinterdorfer, M. Vaupel, T. Fruhwirth and S. Howorka

Langmuir, 22(1): 277-285. Featured in Biophotonics International, March 2006. (2006)

RNA Expression Profiling at the Single-molecule Level

Hesse, J., J. Jacak, M. Kasper, G. Regl, T. Eichberger, M. Winklmayr, F. Aberger, M. Sonnleitner, R. Schlapak, S. Howorka, L. Muresan, A. M. Frischauf and G. J. Schutz

Genome Res, 16(8): 1041-1045. Highlighted in Perspectives section of Genome Research. (2006)


Nanopatterning of Biomolecules with Microscale Beads 

Pammer, P., R. Schlapak, M. Sonnleitner, A. Ebner, R. Zhu, P. Hinterdorfer, O. Höglinger, H. G. Schindler and S. Howorka

ChemPhysChem, 6(5): 900-903 (2005)

Protein Components for Nanodevices

Astier, Y., H. Bayley and S. Howorka

Curr Opin Chem Biol, 9(6): 576-584 (2005)


Stochastic Detection of Monovalent and Multivalent Protein-ligand Interactions 

Howorka, S., J. Nam, H. Bayley and D. Kahne

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 43(7): 842-846 (2004)


Probing Distance and Electrical Potential within a Protein Pore with Tethered DNA 

Howorka, S. and H. Bayley

Biophys J, 83(6): 3202-3210 (2002)